Classical Gluonic Topic

Relative Clauses

Keywords: relative clauses

To form a relative clause in Classical Gluonic, it is mandatory to add the relativising clitic 'tly to the end of the noun phrase being modified. The clause itself is structured as an ordinary verb phrase. The role of the antecedent is marked with gapping for the agent, patient or applied object, and in fact the applicative may be used in some cases specifically to facilitate this strategy. If the antecedent's role in the relative clause is a core verb argument, the verbal agreement suffix must agree with it in colour.

All positions in the accessibility hierarchy can be relativised.

At any lower level in the accessibility hierarchy, a resumptive pronoun is required to mark the role of the antecedent - in addition, it can also be used at the highest levels, so it is grammatical to use the resumptive pronoun at any level, even when gapping is available as a strategy.

In Classical Gluonic, a special pronoun form is used for the resumptive pronoun. See the attached article on pronouns for details.

Example, assuming referents have been introduced:

Aalome thoo gerane'tly kwajsily nyq veppahy.
be-PAT.BLUE-APL.RED 3.SG.ANIM child.RED-SG.ABS.RED-REL throw-AGT.RED-PAT.GREEN PERF ball.GREEN-SG.ABS.GREEN

"He is the child that threw the ball."

In this case, the role of the antecedent is shown by gapping and by the colour agreement on the dependent verb "kwaj." Here is an example lower on the accessibility hierarchy where a resumptive pronoun is used:

Aalome thoo gajme iveene'tly kwajyqly nyq veppahy kehe dii.
be-PAT.BLUE-APL.RED 3.SG.ANIM dog.RED-SG.ABS.RED white.RED-SG.ABS.RED-REL throw-AGT.BLACK-PAT.GREEN PERF ball.GREEN-SG.ABS.GREEN to-RED RES.RED

"He is the white dog that the ball was thrown to."

It reads back more literally like "It is the white dog that the ball was thrown to it." The "dii" is the resumptive pronoun as the object of "ke." The animate pronoun "thoo" is employed even though a dog could also take the inanimate pronoun "rro," and notice that the clitic 'tly applies after the adjective "iveene," at the end of the noun phrase. In this particular case, it would be possible to promote the recipient to a core argument using the applicative and avoid having to use a resumptive pronoun:

Aalome thoo gajme iveene'tly kwajyqlyme nyq veppahy.
be-PAT.BLUE-APL.RED 3.SG.ANIM dog.RED-SG.ABS.RED white.RED-SG.ABS.RED-REL throw-AGT.BLACK-PAT.GREEN-APL.RED PERF ball.GREEN-SG.ABS.GREEN to-RED RES.RED

"He is the white dog that the ball was thrown to."

The meaning is the same, but now gapping can be employed to identify the role of the antecedent (although a resumptive pronoun would still be grammatical).

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