Adverbs and Prepositions
Keywords: adverbs, prepositions, verbs
In Classical Gluonic, adverbs and prepositions are considered verb-like classes, and in fact, can be viewed as the same class. Prepositions are fundamentally adverbial, with prepositions and adverbs differentiated by the fact that prepositions can have an object - but many prepositions can also function without an object and in that case be functionally identical to adverbs.
Because Classical Gluonic is said to be a designed language and not one that evolved naturally, it would be incorrect to view prepositions as having evolved from verbs, as may happen in natural languages. However, they have been designed with clear verb-like qualities.
Adverbs and prepositions are black and opaque. Prepositions can take colour suffixes that agree with their noun phrase objects in colour. Prepositions can have only one object. Placed in an adverb position in a clause, they typically mediate relationships and govern non-core arguments of verbs. They can apply directly to noun phrases, but in order to do so, they must be linked with a relativising clitic, just like a relative clause.
Verbal satellites are often adverbs, or prepositions without an object.
Adverbs are very important because they are the main mains by which tense and aspect information is conveyed when needed (Classical Gluonic tends to allow this information to be inferred from context where possible, though).
The prepositional conjugational paradigm is as follows:
|Black (No Object)||N/A||N/A|
The Bourque romanisation reflects the fact that the same glyph as for singular absolutive nouns is used as the prepositional ending, although only the glyph is coloured, not the root, which is written in black ink.
Preposition with Object as Adverb
An example is the preposition "tam," "from," which is used among other things to mark the periphrastic omitted agent or patient of a passive or antipassive. It can also have a sense of "away," and can be a verbal satellite meaning that an action is completed in an emphatic and difficult to reverse manner. The verb "kwaj tam," for example, means "to throw (something) away."
In the example, we will use a passive construction and show the use of the preposition to introduce the optionally specified agent. Again, the noun referents are assumed to have already been introduced.
Kwajyqle veppehe tamo gorano.
throw-AGT.BLACK-PAT.RED ball.RED-SG.ABS-RED from-BLUE child.BLUE-SG.ABS.BLUE
"The ball is thrown by the child."
Preposition as Verbal Satellite
Here is an example of "tam" being used as a satellite:
Kwajsule gorano veppehe tam.
throw-AGT.BLUE-PAT.RED child.BLUE-SG.ABS.BLUE ball.RED-SG.ABS.RED away.SAT
"The child throws the ball away."
Proper Adverb (Aspect)
An example with a proper adverb is the use of the adverb "nyq," basically "already," as the marker of the perfect aspect.
Meetalo nyq gawmo.
sleep-PAT.BLUE PERF dog.BLUE-SG.ABS.BLUE
"The dog has slept."
Prepositional Phrase as Noun Modifier
A prepositional phrase can be used to modify a noun phrase. To do so, however, the relativising clitic "'tly" must be added to the end of the noun phrase, and the prepositional phrase immediately follow.
Meetalo gorano'tly tame Siirihe.
sleep-PAT.BLUE child.BLUE-SG.ABS.BLUE-REL from-RED Surrey.RED-SG.ABS.RED
"The child from Surrey is sleeping."
The loanword, the placename "Surrey," is shown here with "shine," so "Siirihe," not the opaque "Syyrihe," but in practice, many modern speakers of Classical Gluonic will treat loanwords like this as black and opaque and would say "Syyrihe."